Chess Learning

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This is a guest post by ChessGoals member Christopher Fisher, MD.

Hey Chess enthusiasts! As a perpetual student with nearly two decades of higher education, including Med school and specialized surgery training, I’ve gained a deep understanding of effective learning techniques. Recently, I dove back into the fantastic world of chess and realized that the learning principles I’ve acquired can also be applied here.

So, you’ve decided to get serious about chess and want to see results fast. I’ve been pondering how to bring my lifelong learning expertise on learning to the chessboard, and I have some insights to share.

I. The Immersion Principle in Chess Learning

How can you master a skill as quickly and effectively as possible? Let’s take a deep dive into the world of rapid learning using chess as our prime example. Picture this: if you want to learn a language swiftly, you move to a country where it’s spoken, right? World-class chess players, like Magnus Carlsen, live and breathe chess. That’s right – when you’re learning, obsession is your friend. The more you immerse yourself in the game, the faster you’ll advance.

Starting at a young age offers a significant advantage, as the developing brain is like a sponge, eager to absorb new information. This is true for various skills, from music to languages and, of course, chess. Establishing a strong foundation early on makes it easier to build upon your expertise as you grow older.

In the realm of chess learning, the Immersion Principle is paramount. It involves surrounding yourself with the game, engaging with it constantly, and absorbing its intricacies at every opportunity. World Chess Champion Magnus Carlsen exemplified this approach when asked about his study routine. His response? “The better question is when am I NOT studying chess?” By fully immersing yourself in the world of chess, you can accelerate your learning and understanding of the game.

To put this into practice, dedicate every spare moment to studying chess. Read books, analyze master games, practice tactics, play online games, and seek lessons from experienced players or coaches. Watch chess videos, participate in online forums, and discuss the game with fellow enthusiasts. Turn your chess obsession into a learning powerhouse, and you’ll be amazed by the progress you make on your journey to mastery.

To apply the Immersion Principle to your chess journey, consider the following examples:

  1. Analyze Grandmaster Games: Study games played by the greats such as Kasparov, Alekhine, Morphy, Capablanca, Karpov, Fischer and others. Understand the strategies and tactics they employed in various positions, as well as how they adapted to their opponents’ moves.
  • Participate in Chess Communities: Engage with chess clubs, online forums, and social media groups where enthusiasts discuss advanced concepts, share ideas, and analyze positions. This will expose you to a wealth of knowledge and diverse perspectives that can enhance your own understanding of the game.
  • Tackle Chess Puzzles and Tactical Problems: Solve challenging tactical puzzles and endgame studies that require you to find the best moves in complex positions. This will improve your calculation abilities and help you identify key patterns and tactics in your own games.
  • Follow Chess News and Events: Stay updated on the latest chess tournaments, player interviews, and commentary from experts. This will help you keep abreast of current trends, opening novelties, and notable games, providing insights into the evolving chess landscape.
  • Play and Analyze Your Own Games: Participate in chess competitions or play online games against players of various skill levels. Analyze your games afterward to identify areas for improvement, and apply the lessons learned in your future games.
  • Create a Chess-Centric Environment: Surround yourself with chess books, magazines, podcasts, and videos that cover a wide range of topics, from opening theory and middlegame strategy to endgame technique and player biographies. This will help you internalize chess concepts and become more familiar with the game’s rich history and culture.
  • Learn from Chess Engines and AI: Utilize powerful chess engines like Stockfish and AI-based tools like Leela to analyze positions and learn from their suggestions. While these engines excel at finding tactical solutions, they can also provide valuable insights into positional play and strategic planning.

By fully immersing yourself in the world of chess, you’ll foster a deeper connection with the game, allowing you to learn more effectively and efficiently. Adopting the mindset of chess obsession, as exemplified by Magnus Carlsen, will help you maximize your improvement and fuel your passion for this captivating game.

II. Active Learning in Chess: See One, Do One, Teach One

When teaching Medical students as well as Residents we’d say “See one, Do one, Teach one”. In the world of chess, just as in surgery, active learning plays a crucial role in truly understanding and internalizing concepts. To get the most out of your chess studies, you should adopt the “See one, do one, teach one” approach, which involves applying and teaching newly acquired knowledge.

For instance, let’s say you’ve been studying the London System. You might have watched videos, read books, and reviewed countless variations of this opening. To truly grasp the concepts and ideas behind the London however, you need to apply them in your games.

See One: Start by carefully observing and analyzing a master game featuring the London System. Pay attention to the key concepts, plans, and typical pawn structures that arise in this opening. Make note of any critical moments or tactical ideas that stand out.

Do One: Once you’ve studied the master game, it’s time to put your knowledge into practice. Play a game, either online or against a friend, where you employ the London as White. As the game unfolds, try to recall and apply the plans and ideas you learned from the master game. Win or lose, make sure to analyze your game afterward to identify areas for improvement and reinforce your understanding of the opening.

Teach One: Teaching others is one of the most effective ways to solidify your own understanding. Share your insights on the London System with a friend, a chess club member, or even through an online forum. Engage in discussions about the opening, answer questions, and help others learn from your experience. This process will not only help you retain the information better but also give you a deeper understanding of the intricacies of the London System.

By actively engaging in the learning process, you’ll be more likely to retain and apply the knowledge you’ve gained. This “See one, do one, teach one” approach can be applied to any aspect of chess learning, from tactics and strategies to endgames and everything in between. Make the most of your chess studies by embracing active learning and turning theoretical knowledge into practical expertise.

III. The Stages of Competence and the Path to Chess Intuition

Ever been amazed by the seemingly intuitive moves of grandmasters? Curious about how

they do it, and more importantly, how YOU can do it too? It all comes down to competence. Through diligent practice and experience, they’ve reached a level of unconscious competence, or what can be called “Intuition,” where decision-making appears effortless.

Let’s explore the four stages of competence to truly understand how grandmasters achieve that seemingly intuitive mastery of chess and how you can embark on a similar journey:

1.     Unconscious Incompetence: At this stage, you’re unaware of your lack of skill and might not even recognize the need to improve. In the context of chess, this could mean being oblivious to certain strategies or tactics, like not understanding the importance of controlling the center with pawns or developing your pieces efficiently, such as bringing out your knights and bishops early in the game.

2.     Conscious Incompetence: Now you know what you don’t know! You become aware of your weaknesses and start working to develop those skills. As a chess player, you might realize you need to brush up on opening strategies, such as the aggressive King’s Indian Defense or the more positional Queen’s Gambit. You might also work on your endgame technique, like mastering the Lucena and Philidor positions in rook and pawn endings.

3.     Conscious Competence: You’re making progress! You’ve gained some proficiency, but it still requires conscious effort and focus. In chess, this might involve actively thinking through each move and applying newly learned tactics during a game, like exploiting a discovered attack or using a zwischenzug (an in-between move) to gain the upper hand. You might also start to understand pawn structures and their implications on a deeper level.

4.     Unconscious Competence: You’ve made it! Your skill has become second nature, and you can effortlessly execute moves without conscious thought. This is the level of chess mastery that grandmasters possess, allowing them to intuitively make brilliant moves and dazzle their opponents. For instance, a grandmaster might instantly recognize a tactic like a windmill or find the best plan in a complex middlegame position without breaking a sweat. Malcolm Gladwell popularized the idea in his book “Outliers: The Story of Success” that achieving mastery in any field requires approximately 10,000 hours of dedicated practice, be it the Beatles performing 10,000 shows before hitting it big, Steve Jobs and Bill Gates coding for 10,000 hours before achieving computer genius, or chess players studying and practicing for 10,000 hours before reaching the pinnacle of the game.

By understanding these four stages of competence, you’ll have a clearer roadmap

for your chess journey. Keep honing your skills and working towards that

ultimate goal of unconscious competence, where your chess mastery will truly


IV: How to Master ANYTHING with these 4 things

I had a Neurosurgery Attending Professor at USC once tell me, You need 4 things to master anything”. I’m about to share them with you as applied to chess learning.

Achieving mastery in chess is a fascinating journey that combines natural talent, practice and dedication, effective guidance, and access to resources. By embracing these elements and applying them to your chess learning, you can optimize your growth and strive for excellence. Let’s explore each aspect of mastery in chess learning:

Natural Talent: Yes, natural talent is important and is usually a result of a highly developed visual-spatial analytic reasoning abilities likely developed during childhood. However, while innate ability can play a role in your chess success, it’s crucial not to rely solely on talent. For instance, if you have a knack for visualizing complex positions, don’t ignore other aspects like endgame technique or opening preparation. Recognize your strengths and weaknesses and focus on improving the areas where you may be lacking. This will help you become a more well-rounded player and maximize your potential.

Practice, Immersion, and Discipline: Dedicate yourself to consistent, focused practice and immerse yourself in the world of chess. Aim to strike a balance between studying various aspects of the game, such as tactics (e.g., solving combinations from Mikhail Tal’s games), strategy (e.g., understanding pawn structures), openings (e.g., mastering the Sicilian Defense), middlegames, and endgames (e.g., studying king and pawn endgames). Establish a regular study routine and stick to it, even when progress seems slow. Discipline and perseverance are essential to achieving mastery.

Mentorship and Guidance: Seeking the guidance of a skilled coach or mentor can significantly accelerate your chess improvement, help you avoid bad habits and pitfalls, and most of all help you save time. A knowledgeable coach can identify your weaknesses, provide personalized feedback, and suggest targeted exercises to help you improve (e.g., recommending specific tactics puzzles or suggesting a new opening repertoire). They can also introduce you to new ideas and strategies that you might not have discovered on your own. Studying annotated master games (e.g., Garry Kasparov’s “My Great Predecessors” series) is another form of mentorship that can help you learn optimal ways to play certain openings and positions.

Resources: Having access to a variety of chess resources, such as books (e.g., “My System” by Aron Nimzowitsch), videos (e.g., lectures by GM Yasser Seirawan), online courses, and training software (e.g., ChessBase), can be invaluable for your chess development. The more resources you have at your disposal, the greater your opportunities for learning and growth. Make use of digital tools, such as chess engines (e.g., Stockfish) and online databases (e.g.,’s opening explorer), to analyze your games and explore new ideas. Connect with other chess enthusiasts to share insights and learn from their experiences.

In addition to these four, I have added a couple more things to consider.

Adaptive Learning: As you progress on your chess journey, be willing to adapt your learning approach to your changing needs and goals. Continuously evaluate your progress and identify areas where you may need to adjust your focus or try new strategies. Embrace experimentation and be open to refining your methods as you gain experience and knowledge. For example, you might decide to switch from the French Defense to the Caro-Kann based on your evolving style and preferences.

Balancing Breadth and Depth: Strive for a balance between acquiring a broad understanding of various chess concepts and diving deep into specific areas of the game. Focusing too much on either breadth or depth can hinder your overall chess development. Cultivate a comprehensive understanding of the game while also dedicating time to mastering specific openings (e.g., the Grünfeld Defense), strategies (e.g., exploiting weak squares), and techniques (e.g., coordinating your pieces for maximum harmony). This balanced approach will help you become a versatile, formidable chess player.

V. “Sometimes wrong, never in doubt” Confident Application of Knowledge

You’ve put in the time studying and preparing. Now its time to trust your instincts and commit to your moves. Applying your knowledge with confidence is an essential aspect of chess learning and improvement. By trusting your instincts and the tools you’ve acquired through your studies, you can make more informed decisions over the board and learn from your experiences. Let’s explore some strategies to help you confidently apply your chess knowledge, along with engaging examples:

  1. Trust Your Calculation and Analysis: Develop a systematic approach to calculating variations and analyzing positions. For example, if you’re calculating a tactical sequence involving a sacrifice, trust your ability to evaluate the resulting positions accurately. Be confident in your ability to compare different candidate moves and choose the most promising one.
  2. Embrace Your Chess Intuition: Over time, you’ll develop an innate sense of what moves or plans feel right in certain positions. Trust your chess intuition, which is built upon your accumulated knowledge and experience. Remember that even strong players like Anatoly Karpov rely on their intuition to guide their decision-making in complex situations.
  3. Learn from Your Mistakes: When you make a move that turns out to be incorrect, such as overlooking a tactic or misplaying a pawn structure, take the time to analyze why it was wrong and what you could have done differently. Use these lessons as opportunities for growth, and trust that each mistake brings you one step closer to becoming a better player.
  4. Develop a Resilient Mindset: Embrace the fact that chess is a game of mistakes and that even the best players occasionally make errors. Cultivate a resilient mindset that allows you to bounce back from setbacks, like recovering after blundering a piece, and maintain confidence in your abilities.
  5. Focus on the Present: When you’re at the chessboard, concentrate on the current position and the task at hand, rather than dwelling on past mistakes or worrying about the outcome. This mindset helps you stay focused on applying your knowledge and making the best decisions possible given the information available.
  6. Set Realistic Expectations: Understand that becoming a stronger chess player is a gradual process that requires time, effort, and patience. Set realistic goals and expectations for yourself, such as aiming to improve your endgame technique or achieve a specific rating goal, and maintain confidence in your ability to progress over time.
  7. Seek Constructive Feedback: Engage with chess coaches, peers, or online communities to receive constructive feedback on your play. For example, you might share a game where you felt uncertain about your middlegame plan and receive insights on how to improve your strategic understanding. Use this feedback to identify areas for improvement and refine your knowledge of key concepts.
  8. Celebrate Your Successes: Acknowledge and celebrate your achievements, whether it’s solving a challenging puzzle (e.g., a complex study by Richard Reti), winning a game against a strong opponent (e.g., defeating a higher-rated player in a tournament), or reaching a new rating milestone. Recognizing your successes helps build confidence in your abilities and motivates you to continue learning and improving.

By confidently applying your chess knowledge, you can make more informed decisions, learn from your experiences, and develop a deeper understanding of the game. Cultivating confidence in your abilities and maintaining a growth-oriented mindset will help you unlock your full potential as a chess player.

VI. Chess Diagnostics: A Medical Approach to Finding the Best Moves

In chess, just as in medicine, asking the right questions can guide you in making the best decisions. Drawing inspiration from the concept of differential diagnosis in medicine, we can apply a similar approach to our decision-making process in chess. Here’s how to use key questions and examples to create a list of candidate moves and analyze a given position effectively:

  1. Identify the Position’s Needs: Start by asking yourself questions that address the core aspects of the position. For example, “What is my best piece? What is my opponent’s best piece? What is my worst piece? What is my opponent’s worst piece? How can I trade off my worst piece for my opponent’s best piece? How can I limit or trap their best piece? How can I gain an advantage in this position, whether it be control of an open file, space advantage, improving piece activity, or limiting potential advantages for my opponent?”
  • Generate Candidate Moves: Based on your understanding of the position’s needs, create a list of candidate moves, or your “differential diagnosis.” These moves should be aimed at addressing the goals you’ve identified in the previous step, such as exploiting weaknesses, activating your pieces, or simplifying the position.
For example, in a middlegame position where your opponent’s king is exposed, your differential diagnosis might include moves that create threats or open lines against the king, such as a rook lift, a pawn break, or a queen maneuver.
  • Consider Forcing Moves and the Checks, Captures, Threats (CCT) Method: While generating your list of candidate moves, don’t forget about the importance of forcing moves. Employ the checks, captures, threats (CCT) method to help you find tactical opportunities and ensure that you’re considering all possible moves in a given position.
  • Evaluate and Refine Your List: Once you’ve created your list of candidate moves, evaluate each move’s merits and drawbacks. Compare the moves and their potential outcomes, and use your judgment to decide which move is the most promising.
Continuing with the exposed king example, you might consider whether the rook lift allows for a swift attack on the king or if the pawn break opens up new tactical possibilities. Weigh the potential risks and rewards, such as whether your own king’s safety could be compromised by the pawn break or if the queen maneuver might be too slow.
  • Make Your Move and Learn from the Outcome: After analyzing your candidate moves and selecting the most promising option, confidently make your move on the board. Regardless of the outcome, use the experience as a learning opportunity, reflecting on your thought process and decision-making. If the move turns out to be suboptimal, analyze why and strive to avoid similar mistakes in the future.

By using a differential diagnosis approach in chess, you can systematically generate, evaluate, and refine your candidate moves, allowing you to make better-informed decisions and improve your overall chess understanding.

Remember, as in medical school practical exams, it’s not just about finding the right move but also about demonstrating a sound thought process that leads you to the best decision.

VII. Tailoring Your Learning Style in Chess:

Recognizing and adapting your learning style to suit your individual strengths and preferences is crucial for effective chess improvement. By understanding how you process information and approach problem-solving, you can develop a personalized learning plan that maximizes your potential. This includes identifying whether you tend to focus on the positive or negative aspects of a position, whether you are goal-oriented or move-by-move oriented, and employing other strategies suited to your learning style.

Here are some ways to tailor your learning style in chess:

  1. Identify Your Learning Style: Determine whether you are a visual, auditory, or kinesthetic learner, and choose study materials and activities that cater to your preferred learning style. For example, visual learners might benefit from studying annotated diagrams and watching videos, while auditory learners might prefer podcasts and verbal explanations from a coach. A kinesthetic learner may retain and learn better by actually moving chess pieces on a real board.
  2. Positive vs. Negative Focus: Understand whether you naturally gravitate towards identifying strengths or weaknesses in a position. If you tend to focus on the positive aspects, make a conscious effort to also examine potential threats and vulnerabilities. Conversely, if you tend to see the negative aspects first, practice looking for opportunities and advantages in a position.
  3. Goal-Oriented vs. Move-by-Move Oriented: Recognize whether you prefer to set specific objectives and work towards them or if you are more comfortable making decisions on a move-by-move basis. Goal-oriented players may benefit from studying strategic concepts and planning, while move-by-move oriented players might find it helpful to focus on tactics and calculating variations.
  4. Big Picture vs. Details: Determine whether you prefer to start with a broad understanding of a concept and then dive into the details, or if you prefer to learn the specifics and then build a bigger picture. Adjust your learning approach accordingly, such as starting with general principles and then examining specific examples or vice versa. It would be interesting to model a GM’s cognitive approach as well and interviews or books that they may have written may give you insights into their thinking processes.
  5. Active vs. Passive Learning: Engage in active learning activities that align with your learning style, such as solving puzzles, playing practice games, and discussing positions with others. Actively applying what you’ve learned will help to reinforce your understanding and improve your overall chess skills.
  6. Adapt Your Study Plan: Create a personalized study plan that incorporates your preferred learning style, focus tendencies, and problem-solving approach. This may involve a mix of studying opening theory, middlegame strategy, endgame technique, tactics, and reviewing master games, tailored to your specific needs and preferences.
  7. Seek Guidance from a Coach or Course: A good chess coach or course can help you to identify your learning style and provide tailored guidance and resources that cater to your individual needs. They can also offer valuable insights into your strengths and weaknesses, helping you to develop a targeted plan for improvement.
  8. Learn socially as well: Sometimes learning with others can not only be a social event but can help to reinforce concepts as we bounce ideas back and forth with each other. Just remember not to waste too much time socializing and stick to business.

By understanding and tailoring your learning style in chess, you can create a personalized and effective approach to improving your game. Embracing your natural tendencies and preferences, while also challenging yourself to explore new strategies and perspectives, will help you to maximize your potential and enjoy the process of chess growth.

VIII. The Socratic Method in Chess Learning

The Socratic Method, attributed to the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates, is a teaching technique that uses guided questioning to help students discover knowledge through critical thinking and dialogue. In the context of chess learning, this method can be highly effective when applied by a skilled chess coach or well-designed course, promoting deep understanding and active engagement with the material.

I remember being in hospital rounds where an attending would “pimp” the students and residents by putting them on the spot in front of everyone to test their knowledge about a particular diagnosis, condition, or surgery. They would continue to ask more and more specific questions until your answer was “I don’t know”. The purpose wasn’t public humiliation, although I sometimes wonder about that. It was to find the limits of your knowledge so that you could start at the beginning of your learning. Could it be harsh? Yes – but very effective, because what I wasn’t able to answer then, I’ll never forget now.

Here’s how the Socratic Method can be applied in a chess learning environment:

Identifying Learning Goals: A good chess coach or course will begin by identifying specific learning goals for the student, such as mastering a particular opening, improving calculation skills, or developing better positional understanding. These goals serve as a focal point for the Socratic dialogue that follows.

  1. Guided Questioning: Instead of providing direct answers or explanations, the coach or course engages the student in a series of questions that guide them toward discovering the desired knowledge or insight. For example, when discussing an opening, the coach might ask, “What are the key ideas behind this opening?” or “How does this move support your overall strategy?” These questions encourage the student to think critically about the position and articulate their understanding.
  2. Active Engagement: The Socratic Method fosters active engagement by requiring the student to think deeply, analyze positions, and justify their ideas. This active participation helps to solidify the student’s understanding and encourages them to apply their knowledge in practical situations.
  3. Encouraging Reflection and Self-Correction: The coach or course provides constructive feedback, pointing out errors or inconsistencies in the student’s reasoning and prompting them to reevaluate their ideas. This process of reflection and self-correction helps the student to develop a more accurate and nuanced understanding of the game.
  4. Adapting to the Student’s Level: The Socratic Method is highly adaptable to the individual needs and skill level of the student. By tailoring the questions and dialogue to the student’s current knowledge, the coach or course can effectively challenge the student, promoting growth and improvement.
  5. Developing Problem-Solving Skills: The Socratic Method not only deepens the student’s understanding of specific chess concepts but also develops their problem-solving skills and ability to think critically in various situations. This translates to improved decision-making and resourcefulness over the board.

The Socratic Method, when applied in chess learning, empowers students to actively engage with the material, fostering deep understanding and the development of critical thinking skills. A skilled chess coach or well-designed course that utilizes this method can be highly effective in helping students to achieve their full potential in the game.

Ready to apply these learning principles to your chess journey? Grab your board, and let’s get started! Checkmate awaits.

Christopher Fisher, MD